The following is an account by E. R. Bevan of some aspects of the reign of Antiochus IV, king of Syria, Palestine, and Mesopotamia in the first part of the second century B.C.
Bevan, Edwyn Robert, 1902. THE HOUSE OF SELEUCUS, Vol II, Edward Arnold, London.
“On the Sublime” is a work of literary criticism written in the first century, generally attributed to an author called Pseudo Longinus.
Longinus On the sublime.
Henry Frowde, M.A.
Publisher to the University of Oxford
London, Edinburgh New York and Toronto. 1906.
One of the most dark, and hidden subjects related to the Scriptures is the meaning of the firmament of Genesis 1, and of the waters that are said to be above the heavens. The apostle Peter said: “We have also a more sure word of prophecy; whereunto ye do well that ye take heed, as unto a light that shineth in a dark place, until the day dawn, and the day star arise in your hearts: Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation. For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.” (2 Peter 1:19-210)
Dr. Thomas M. Strouse, Dean and Professor Emeritus of Emmanuel Baptist Theological Seminary, Newington, Connecticut has a Bachelor of Science degree from Purdue University, and a Ph.D from Bob Jones University. He is the author of THE GEOCENTRIC COSMOLOGY OF GENESIS 1:1-19, presented below, in which he defends his geocentric interpretation of the cosmology of Genesis and the OT.
Dr. R. Laird Harris (1911-2008) was Professor of Old Testament at Covenant Theological
Seminary. He served as chairman of the Committee on Bible Translation which produced
the New International Version. He was co-author of Theological Wordbook of the Old
Testament. In the article below, he takes issue with some aspects of an article on biblical
cosmology in The Hastings Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics.
Denis O. Lamoureux is the author of “Lessons from the Heavens: On Scripture, Science and Inerrancy.” [Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith, Volume 59, Number 1, March 2007.]
The article focuses upon concordism as an interpretive approach to biblical cosmology in contrast to what he calls a modern phenomenological perspective. Lamoureux included the following discussion of the firmament:
The following is from the Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas, presenting his discussion of the Genesis account of creation of the firmament, and his explanation of the waters above the firmament.
Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274) was an Italian Dominican friar and priest who is known for his attempt to synthesize Aristotle’s philosophy with Christianity. Catholics regard him as a Doctor of the Church.
Because he lived centuries before the date that the prophecy of Daniel 8 specifies for the “cleansing of the sanctuary,” (about 1750 A.D., 23 centuries after the vision given in the third year of Belshazzar, 550 B.C.) and because his conception of the heavens was influenced by the theories of Plato and Aristotle, and by cosmological corruptions introduced in Scripture by Antiochus IV and his agents, foretold by Daniel, Thomas’s writings about the firmament and the waters above are more darkness than light.