Austin Farrer referred to the “astonishing elaboration of imagery” that John employed in the prophecy of the second woe. Metaphors overlie other metaphors like layers of clothing. In his book A Rebirth of Images: The Making of St. John’s Apocalypse [SUNY Press, 1949. pp. 235-236.] Farrer wrote:
The following is a commentary on the prophecy of the second woe, by F. D. Maurice, from: Fredrick Denison Maurice. Lectures On The Apocalypse. Macmillan And Co. London. (1861) pp. 163-168.
G. E. Ladd’s interpretation of the prophecy of the second woe is quoted below, accompanied by my annotations. [George Eldon Ladd. A Commentary on the Revelation of John Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. 1972. pp. 135-139.]
Justin Almerin Smith (1819-1896) discussed the second woe of Revelation chapter 9 in his Commentary on the Revelation. [American Baptist Publication Society. Philadelphia, Pa. 1884. pp. 131-139.]
Smith attempted to apply the prophecy to historical events. He believed the prophecy foretold the centuries of warfare between Mohammedanism and Christianity.
In his article on The Seven Trumpets Of Revelation, Henry Bechthold proposed a unique interpretation of the cavalry of 200 million horses and horsemen of the second woe. He claims that both the horses and horsemen of the sixth trumpet, and the two witnesses, represent the church, and God’s end-time servants.
The following is a commentary on Revelation 9:13-21 by Isbon Thaddeus Beckwith, The Apocalypse of John [Macmillan Co., New York. 1919. pp. 564-570.]