Metaphorical mountains of prophecy

May 12, 2013

The metaphorical meaning of mountains as symbols of God’s promises and blessings is based upon the words of Jacob in Genesis 49:26 where he said, as he blessed Joseph:

The blessings of thy father have prevailed above the blessings of my progenitors unto the utmost bound of the everlasting hills.

Mountains, rivers, valleys, hills, coasts, wilderness, desert, are all part of the land that God promised to give Abraham, and to Isaac, and to Jacob. Belief was required for the Israelites to enter the land of promise. [Heb. 3:19] Jacob discovered that the things that must be believed, promises of spiritual blessings, are represented by mountains and hills.

The promises he received were lofty and spiritual, and so were high like high mountains, and also durable, or eternal, so he compared them to the “everlasting hills.”

The table below lists many prophecies that refer to mountains, with brief explanatory notes.

Mountain metaphors Reference Explanation
Sound an alarm in Zion, and in God’s holy mountain Joel 2:1 “Blow ye the trumpet in Zion, and sound an alarm in my holy mountain:” [Joel 2:1]
Zion represents the Christian Church.
Mount Zion abides for ever Psa. 125:1-2 “They that trust in the Lord shall be as mount Zion, which cannot be removed, but abideth for ever. As the mountains are round about Jerusalem, so the Lord is round about his people from henceforth even for ever.” [Psa. 125:1-2]
Blasphemies are spoken against the mountains Ezek. 35:12 Men who lack understanding misinterpret prophecy.
“And thou shalt know that I am the Lord, and that I have heard all thy blasphemies which thou hast spoken against the mountains of Israel, saying, They are laid desolate, they are given us to consume.” [Ezek. 35:12]
A burnt mountain Jer. 51:25 Jeremiah called Babylon a destroying mountain, and said that God will make it a burnt mountain.

“Behold, I am against thee, O destroying mountain, saith the Lord, which destroyest all the earth: and I will stretch out mine hand upon thee, and roll thee down from the rocks, and will make thee a burnt mountain.” [Jer. 51:25]
Jesus commissioned his disciples on a mountain Matt. 28:16-20 “Then the eleven disciples went away into Galilee, into a mountain where Jesus had appointed them.
And when they saw him, they worshipped him: but some doubted.
And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth.
Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:
Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you always, even unto the end of the world. Amen.” [Matt. 28:16-20]
God’s controversy Mic. 6:1-3 God’s controversy is argued before the mountains.
“Hear ye now what the Lord saith; Arise, contend thou before the mountains, and let the hills hear thy voice. Hear ye, O mountains, the Lord‘s controversy, and ye strong foundations of the earth: for the Lord hath a controversy with his people, and he will plead with Israel.” [Mic. 6:1-3]
Mountains represent covenants Gal. 4:21-32 In Galatians 4, Mount Sinai and Mount Zion are symbols of two covenants. Paul wrote:
“Tell me, ye that desire to be under the law, do ye not hear the law? For it is written, that Abraham had two sons, the one by a bondmaid, the other by a freewoman. But he who was of the bondwoman was born after the flesh; but he of the freewoman was by promise. Which things are an allegory: for these are the two covenants; the one from the mount Sinai, which gendereth to bondage, which is Agar. For this Agar is mount Sinai in Arabia, and answereth to Jerusalem which now is, and is in bondage with her children. But Jerusalem which is above is free, which is the mother of us all.” [Gal 4:21-26]The heavenly Jerusalem and heavenly mount Zion are contrasted with the earthly Jerusalem, which is identified with Hagar, who was cast out of Abraham’s house.Sinai represents the Mosaic legislation and is of the earth. It is identified with the earthly Jerusalem which is in bondage, and with the Old Covenant. Paul wrote:”Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are the children of promise. But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now. Nevertheless what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son: for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman. So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free.” [Gal 4:28-31]
Clouds, gloominess and darkness obscure the mountains Joel 2:2; Jer. 13:16 In the day of the Lord the mountains are obscured by thick clouds and gloominess, like a morning fog. The prophecies and the promises of God are obscured by flawed interpretations.

“A day of darkness and of gloominess, a day of clouds and of thick darkness, as the morning spread upon the mountains:” [Joel 2:2]
“Hear ye, and give ear; be not proud: for the Lord hath spoken.
Give glory to the Lord your God, before he cause darkness, and before your feet stumble upon the dark mountains, and, while ye look for light, he turn it into the shadow of death, and make it gross darkness.” [Jer. 13:15-16]
Mountains made desolate Ezek. 36:3 The meaning of prophecy has been obscured by flawed interpretations:

“…they have made you desolate, and swallowed you up on every side, that ye might be a possession unto the residue of the heathen, and ye are taken up in the lips of talkers, and are an infamy of the people.” [Ezek. 36:3]
God dwells in mount Zion Psa. 68:15-16; Joel 3:17; Zech. 8:3 “The hill of God is as the hill of Bashan; an high hill as the hill of Bashan.
Why leap ye, ye high hills? this is the hill which God desireth to dwell in; yea, the Lord will dwell in it for ever.” [Psa. 68:15-16]
“So shall ye know that I am the Lord your God dwelling in Zion, my holy mountain: then shall Jerusalem be holy, and there shall no strangers pass through her any more.” [Joel 3:17]”Thus saith the Lord; I am returning unto Zion, and will dwell in the midst of Jerusalem: and Jerusalem shall be called a city of truth; and the mountain of the Lord of hosts the holy mountain.” [Zech. 8:3]
The garden of Eden was a mountain Ezek. 28:11-14 Eden is identified with a mountain in Ezekiel’s prophecy about the king of Tyrus.
“Moreover the word of the Lord came unto me, saying,
Son of man, take up a lamentation upon the king of Tyrus, and say unto him, Thus saith the Lord God; Thou sealest up the sum, full of wisdom, and perfect in beauty.
Thou hast been in Eden the garden of God; every precious stone was thy covering, the sardius, topaz, and the diamond, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the emerald, and the carbuncle, and gold: the workmanship of thy tabrets and of thy pipes was prepared in thee in the day that thou wast created.
Thou art the anointed cherub that covereth; and I have set thee so: thou wast upon the holy mountain of God; thou hast walked up and down in the midst of the stones of fire.” [Ezek. 28:11-14]
Everlasting hills Gen. 49:26; Hab. 3:6 Jacob compared his blessings to mountains. Mountains represent spiritual things, that are everlasting.
On the other hand, literal mountains may be contrasted with spiritual ones, God’s promises that endure forever.”For the mountains shall depart, and the hills be removed; but my kindness shall not depart from thee, neither shall the covenant of my peace be removed, saith the Lord that hath mercy on thee.” [Isa. 54:10]
Flee to the mountains Matt. 24:15-16; Jer. 3:23 Flee to God’s promises and seek to enter his kingdom.
Jesus did not mean flee to save your life, as he also said, “For whosoever will save his life shall lose it: but whosoever will lose his life for my sake, the same shall save it.” [Luke 9:24]Safety is not found in literal mountains; Jeremiah wrote:

“Truly in vain is salvation hoped for from the hills, and from the multitude of mountains: truly in the Lord our God is the salvation of Israel.” [Jer. 3:23]

A feast for all people on mount Zion. Isa. 44:23 This refers to a feast of spiritual learning, since Mount Zion is a spiritual mountain that cannot be touched. [Heb. 12:18, 20] It is called a feast of wines on the lees, alluding to the remnants of the yeast remaining after fermentation.

“And in this mountain shall the Lord of hosts make unto all people a feast of fat things, a feast of wines on the lees, of fat things full of marrow, of wines on the lees well refined.” [Isa. 44:23]
Threats to those who forget God’s holy mountain Isa. 65:11-12 “But ye are they that forsake the Lord, that forget my holy mountain, that prepare a table for that troop, and that furnish the drink offering unto that number.
Therefore will I number you to the sword, and ye shall all bow down to the slaughter: because when I called, ye did not answer; when I spake, ye did not hear; but did evil before mine eyes, and did choose that wherein I delighted not.” [Isa. 65:11-12]
God forms the mountains Psa. 65:6; Amos 4:13 “Which by his strength setteth fast the mountains; being girded with power:” [Psa. 65:6]
“For, lo, he that formeth the mountains, and createth the wind, and declareth unto man what is his thought, that maketh the morning darkness, and treadeth upon the high places of the earth, The Lord, The God of hosts, is his name.” [Amos 4:13]
Mount Zion the foundation of faith Psa. 87:1; Isa. 28:16 The gospel is revealed in the blessings and promises to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and the promises to David, which are represented by “holy mountains.”
David wrote, “His foundation is in the holy mountains.” [Psa. 87:1]”Therefore thus saith the Lord God, Behold, I lay in Zion for a foundation a stone, a tried stone, a precious corner stone, a sure foundation: he that believeth shall not make haste.” [Isa. 28:16]
Jesus fed 5,000 men on a mountain John 6:1-15 The miracle of feeding a crowd of 5,000 took place upon a mountain near Galilee.
Mountains are not found Rev. 16:20 “And every island fled away, and the mountains were not found.” [Rev. 16:20]
The mountains represent blessings and promises. Spiritual gifts promised to the church are some of the mountains that are not found. People misunderstand prophecy, and miss out on benefits and blessings.
Mountains are fruitful Ezek. 36:8 Mountains will yield their fruit to Israel.
“But ye, O mountains of Israel, ye shall shoot forth your branches, and yield your fruit to my people of Israel; for they are at hand to come.” [Ezek. 36:8]
James wrote:”Be patient therefore, brethren, unto the coming of the Lord. Behold, the husbandman waiteth for the precious fruit of the earth, and hath long patience for it, until he receive the early and latter rain.” [Jam. 5:7]
Nations are gathered at a mountain Rev. 16:15-16 At Har-Magedon (which probably alludes to the area of Megiddo in Palestine), God’s enemies are gathered.
“Behold, I come as a thief. Blessed is he that watcheth, and keepeth his garments, lest he walk naked, and they see his shame. And he gathered them together into a place called in the Hebrew tongue Armageddon.” [Rev. 16:15-16]
Gog and Magog come against the mountains of Israel Ezek. 38:8, 17; 39:4 God’s enemies misinterpret prophecies about mountains, and invade the spiritual inheritance of the saints.
“After many days thou shalt be visited: in the latter years thou shalt come into the land that is brought back from the sword, and is gathered out of many people, against the mountains of Israel, which have been always waste: but it is brought forth out of the nations, and they shall dwell safely all of them.” [Ezek. 38:8]They come against the prophets of Israel.”Thus saith the Lord God; Art thou he of whom I have spoken in old time by my servants the prophets of Israel, which prophesied in those days many years that I would bring thee against them? [Ezek. 38:17]

The hordes of Gog and Magog fall on the mountains of Israel.

Flawed interpretations of prophecy are discredited as the truth is revealed. Those who promote flawed interpretations fall on the mountains of Israel, which represent God’s spiritual promises to the saints.

“Thou shalt fall upon the mountains of Israel, thou, and all thy bands, and the people that is with thee: I will give thee unto the ravenous birds of every sort, and to the beasts of the field to be devoured.” [Ezek. 39:4]

Mountains grow Dan. 2:35 “Then was the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver, and the gold, broken to pieces together, and became like the chaff of the summer threshingfloors; and the wind carried them away, that no place was found for them: and the stone that smote the image became a great mountain, and filled the whole earth. [Dan. 2:35]

The stone cut out without hands applies to Jesus, who is the corner stone of the spiritual temple, the church.
“Ye also, as lively stones, are built up a spiritual house, an holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God by Jesus Christ. Wherefore also it is contained in the scripture, Behold, I lay in Sion a chief corner stone, elect, precious: and he that believeth on him shall not be confounded.” [1 Pet. 2:5-6]The church is a building that grows.”Now therefore ye are no more strangers and foreigners, but fellowcitizens with the saints, and of the household of God; And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone; In whom all the building fitly framed together groweth unto an holy temple in the Lord:” [Eph. 2:19-21]
Men hide in the rocks and dens of the mountains Rev. 6:15 The prophecies are partial revelations; Paul said, “For we know in part and we prophesy in part.” [1 Cor. 13:9] Mountains likewise are viewed in part. Their profiles depend upon the direction from which they are viewed. Higher mountains provide a broad perspective. From within the caverns and dens of the rocks, the view is restricted.
Men who deny that Jesus reigns on David’s throne, hide from truth, even while claiming to follow him.

“And the kings of the earth, and the great men, and the rich men, and the chief captains, and the mighty men, and every bondman, and every free man, hid themselves in the dens and in the rocks of the mountains; And said to the mountains and rocks, Fall on us, and hide us from the face of him that sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb: For the great day of his wrath is come; and who shall be able to stand?” [Rev. 6:15-17]

Men identify themselves as God’s people. They say “Fall on us” to the Scriptures promising salvation.

Jesus said to the people who followed him as he went to the place where he was crucified, “For, behold, the days are coming, in the which they shall say, Blessed are the barren, and the wombs that never bare, and the paps which never gave suck. Then shall they begin to say to the mountains, Fall on us; and to the hills, Cover us.” [Luke 23:29-31]

The mountains represent God’s promises including the promise of salvation.
The mountain of the height of Israel Ezek. 17:23; 20:40 Ezekiel called God’s holy mountain “the mountain of the height of Israel.”

“For in mine holy mountain, in the mountain of the height of Israel, saith the Lord God, there shall all the house of Israel, all of them in the land, serve me: there will I accept them, and there will I require your offerings, and the firstfruits of your oblations, with all your holy things.” [Ezek. 20:40]
Help comes from the hills Psa. 121:1 “I will lift up mine eyes unto the hills, from whence cometh my help.” [Psa. 121:1]

The hills are metaphorical. Believing the promises of God helps the church.
Views seen from high mountains Ezek. 40:2; Rev. 21:10 The prophets viewed the visionary temple and heavenly Jerusalem from high mountains, signifying the spiritual character of the subjects.
Climb the high mountain Isa. 40:9; 52:7 To climb the high mountain means viewing prophecy spiritually rather than literally.

“O Zion, that bringest good tidings, get thee up into the high mountain; O Jerusalem, that bringest good tidings, lift up thy voice with strength; lift it up, be not afraid; say unto the cities of Judah, Behold your God!” [Isa. 40:9]

“How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth peace; that bringeth good tidings of good, that publisheth salvation; that saith unto Zion, Thy God reigneth!” [Isa. 52:7]
Holy mountains Psa. 87:1; Isa. 57:13 God’s promises are holy.
Mountains are the inheritance of the faithful Josh. 14:12; Isa. 57:13-14; 65:9 Caleb said, “give me this mountain.” Mountains represent the spiritual inheritance of the saints.

Isaiah wrote: “but he that putteth his trust in me shall possess the land, and shall inherit my holy mountain; And shall say, Cast ye up, cast ye up, prepare the way, take up the stumblingblock out of the way of my people.” [Isa. 57:13-14]

In his commentary on this verse J.A. Alexander wrote, “the possession of the land is an appointed symbol of the highest blessings which are in reserve for true believers here and hereafter.”

Jesus inherited all the promises of God, which are represented by mountains, so he is called “an inheritor of my mountains.”

“And I will bring forth a seed out of Jacob, and out of Judah an inheritor of my mountains: and mine elect shall inherit it, and my servants shall dwell there.” [Isa. 65:9]
The mountain of thine inheritance Ex. 15:17 After Israel crossed the Red Sea, Moses and the people sang:
“The people shall hear, and be afraid: sorrow shall take hold on the inhabitants of Palestina…
Fear and dread shall fall upon them; by the greatness of thine arm they shall be as still as a stone; till thy people pass over, O Lord, till the people pass over, which thou hast purchased.
Thou shalt bring them in, and plant them in the mountain of thine inheritance, in the place, O Lord, which thou hast made for thee to dwell in, in the Sanctuary, O Lord, which thy hands have established.” [Ex. 15:14, 16-17]
Invisible mountains Heb. 12:18-20 Mount Zion is an invisible, spiritual mountain, that cannot be touched.
“For ye are not come unto the mount that might be touched, and that burned with fire, nor unto blackness, and darkness, and tempest, And the sound of a trumpet, and the voice of words; which voice they that heard intreated that the word should not be spoken to them any more: … But ye are come unto mount Sion, and unto the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to an innumerable company of angels, To the general assembly and church of the firstborn, which are written in heaven, and to God the Judge of all, and to the spirits of just men made perfect, And to Jesus the mediator of the new covenant, and to the blood of sprinkling, that speaketh better things than that of Abel.” [Heb. 12:18-19, 22-24]
Hills are joyful Psa. 98:8 “The Lord hath made known his salvation: his righteousness hath he openly shewed in the sight of the heathen.
He hath remembered his mercy and his truth toward the house of Israel: all the ends of the earth have seen the salvation of our God.
Make a joyful noise unto the Lord, all the earth: make a loud noise, and rejoice, and sing praise.
Sing unto the Lord with the harp; with the harp, and the voice of a psalm.
With trumpets and sound of cornet make a joyful noise before the Lord, the King.
Let the sea roar, and the fulness thereof; the world, and they that dwell therein.
Let the floods clap their hands: let the hills be joyful together
Before the Lord; for he cometh to judge the earth: with righteousness shall he judge the world, and the people with equity.” [Psa. 98:2-9]
Locusts leap on the tops of mountains Joel 2:5 The army of locusts alludes to the Israelites in the wilderness who lacked the faith to enter the promised land, which represents the spiritual inheritance of the saints. [Num. 33:13] Horses signify people who lack understanding. [Psa. 32:9]

“A fire devoureth before them; and behind them a flame burneth: the land is as the garden of Eden before them, and behind them a desolate wilderness; yea, and nothing shall escape them.
The appearance of them is as the appearance of horses; and as horsemen, so shall they run.
Like the noise of chariots on the tops of mountains shall they leap, like the noise of a flame of fire that devoureth the stubble, as a strong people set in battle array.” [Joel 2:3-5]

Possibly, locusts leaping on the tops of mountains with much noise is connected with the denominational rivalries in the church.
Mountains made low Isa. 40:4-5; Isa. 45:2 Prophecies that remain unexplained and mysterious are like high mountain peaks which are in unexplored and unknown territory. When prophecy is fulfilled and its meaning is understood, these figurative mountains are “made low.” Their symbolic meaning is explained. The spiritual meaning of obscure prophecies becomes clear. This was the message of John the Baptist, based on Isaiah’s prophecies in Isa. 40:4-5 and 45:2. Jesus fulfilled many prophecies and explained how they applied to himself. The New Testament explains many of the mysteries of the Old Testament Scriptures.
“Every valley shall be exalted, and every mountain and hill shall be made low: and the crooked shall be made straight, and the rough places plain: And the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together: for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it.” [Isa. 40:4-5]The crooked being made straight, and the rough places plain signifies difficult Scriptures being explained and interpreted so they are properly understood. Isaiah’s prophecy of Cyrus applies to Jesus, who has inherited hidden treasures.”This is what the Lord says to his anointed,
to Cyrus, whose right hand I take hold of
to subdue nations before him
and to strip kings of their armor,
to open doors before him
so that gates will not be shut:
I will go before you
and will level the mountains;
I will break down gates of bronze
and cut through bars of iron.
I will give you hidden treasures,
riches stored in secret places,
so that you may know that I am the Lord,
the God of Israel, who summons you by name.”
[Isa. 45:1-3 NIV]

Paul wrote of Christ, “In whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge.” [Col 2:3]

Old Covenant promises are shadows and types of spiritual realities of the gospel. Mount Zion was raised up and Jerusalem became a heavenly city when Jesus ascended to heaven, after his resurrection. The saints now look for a better country. [Heb. 11:16] The Mosaic legislation, represented by Sinai, was “made low.” Ethnic Jews who reject Jesus have been cut off from the promises to Israel. [Acts 3:23].
Mountains melt Jud. 5:5; Isa. 34:3 Sinai represents the Mosaic legislation. It is melted or transformed in the new covenant.
Isaiah said mountains are melted with the blood of God’s adversaries. Understanding the meaning of the mountains of prophecy discredits flawed explanations.”Their slain also shall be cast out, and their stink shall come up out of their carcases, and the mountains shall be melted with their blood.” [Isa. 34:3]
Mountains move out of their places Rev. 6:14; Job 9:4-6 “And the heaven departed as a scroll when it is rolled together; and every mountain and island were moved out of their places.” [Rev. 6:14]
Mountains represent promises of God, and revelations, and prophecies. When prophecy is misinterpreted, and applied to the wrong people at the wrong time, the mountains are figuratively moved out of their places.”He is wise in heart, and mighty in strength: who hath hardened himself against him, and hath prospered?
Which removeth the mountains, and they know not: which overturneth them in his anger.
Which shaketh the earth out of her place, and the pillars thereof tremble.” [Job 9:4-6]

“God is our refuge and strength, a very present help in trouble. Therefore will not we fear, though the earth be removed, and though the mountains be carried into the midst of the sea; Though the waters thereof roar and be troubled, though the mountains shake with the swelling thereof. Selah.” [Psa. 46:1-3]

A tumultuous noise in the mountains Isa. 13:4 “The noise of a multitude in the mountains, like as of a great people; a tumultuous noise of the kingdoms of nations gathered together: the Lord of hosts mustereth the host of the battle.” [Isa. 13:4]

“Like the noise of chariots on the tops of mountains shall they leap, like the noise of a flame of fire that devoureth the stubble, as a strong people set in battle array.” [Joel 2:5]
Mountains bring peace Psa. 72:3; Isa. 52:7; Nah. 1:15 “The mountains shall bring peace to the people, and the little hills, by righteousness.” [Psa. 72:3]
“How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth peace; that bringeth good tidings of good, that publisheth salvation; that saith unto Zion, Thy God reigneth! [Isa. 52:7]”Behold upon the mountains the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth peace! O Judah, keep thy solemn feasts, perform thy vows: for the wicked shall no more pass through thee; he is utterly cut off.” [Nah. 1:15]
Mountains raised up Isa. 2:2 When Jesus ascended to heaven, Jerusalem and Mount Zion were also raised up, and became spiritual. Since then, promises and prophecies about Jerusalem apply to the heavenly city, not the earthly one.
Zechariah echoed Isaiah’s prophecy about Jerusalem.”All the land shall be turned as a plain from Geba to Rimmon south of Jerusalem: and it shall be lifted up, and inhabited in her place, from Benjamin’s gate unto the place of the first gate, unto the corner gate, and from the tower of Hananeel unto the king’s winepresses.” [Zech. 14:10]Isaiah’s prophecy illustrates continuity between Old Testament Jerusalem and the heavenly Jerusalem of the New Testament. Jerusalem and mount Zion were raised up, in a spiritual sense, while the earthly city was cast out, and was identified with Hagar the bondwoman who was cast out of Abraham’s house.

“Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are the children of promise. But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now. Nevertheless what saith the scripture? Cast out the bondwoman and her son: for the son of the bondwoman shall not be heir with the son of the freewoman. So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free.” [Gal. 4:28-31]

After Jesus ascended to heaven, prophecies about Jerusalem apply to the transformed heavenly city.

Christ reigns in Zion Psa. 2:6; 48:2; Isa. 24:23; 52:7; Jer. 8:19; Micah 4:7 “Why do the heathen rage, and the people imagine a vain thing?
The kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers take counsel together, against the Lord, and against his anointed, saying,
Let us break their bands asunder, and cast away their cords from us.
He that sitteth in the heavens shall laugh: the Lord shall have them in derision.
Then shall he speak unto them in his wrath, and vex them in his sore displeasure.
Yet have I set my king upon my holy hill of Zion.” [Psa. 2:1-6]
“Beautiful for situation, the joy of the whole earth, is mount Zion, on the sides of the north, the city of the great King. [Psa. 48:2]”Then the moon shall be confounded, and the sun ashamed, when the Lord of hosts shall reign in mount Zion, and in Jerusalem, and before his ancients gloriously.” [Isa. 24:23]”How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth peace; that bringeth good tidings of good, that publisheth salvation; that saith unto Zion, Thy God reigneth!” [Isa. 52:7]”Behold the voice of the cry of the daughter of my people because of them that dwell in a far country: Is not the Lord in Zion? is not her king in her? Why have they provoked me to anger with their graven images, and with strange vanities?” [Jer. 8:19]

“And I will make her that halted a remnant, and her that was cast far off a strong nation: and the Lord shall reign over them in mount Zion from henceforth, even for ever.” [Micah 4:7]

Mountains a place of rest Gen. 8:4 The ark of Noah rested on mountains, and the church also finds rest in metaphorical mountains, that represent God’s promises.
An adversary occupies God’s holy mountain Dan. 11:45 “And he shall plant the tabernacles of his palace between the seas in the glorious holy mountain; yet he shall come to his end, and none shall help him.” [Dan. 11:45]
A mountain becomes a plain Zech. 4:7 “Who art thou, O great mountain? before Zerubbabel thou shalt become a plain: and he shall bring forth the headstone thereof with shoutings, crying, Grace, grace unto it.” [Zech. 4:7]
God’s righteousness is like great mountains Psa. 36:6 “Thy righteousness is like the great mountains; thy judgments are a great deep: O Lord, thou preservest man and beast.” [Psa. 36:6]
Rivers flow upon all the mountains Isa. 30:25; 41:18 Rivers flowing on high mountains represent spiritual truths revealed as the metaphorical meaning of mountains is understood.

“And there shall be upon every high mountain, and upon every high hill, rivers and streams of waters in the day of the great slaughter, when the towers fall.” [Isa. 30:25]

“I will open rivers in high places, and fountains in the midst of the valleys: I will make the wilderness a pool of water, and the dry land springs of water.” [Isa. 41:18]

A great sacrifice on the mountains Ezek. 39:17 “And, thou son of man, thus saith the Lord God; Speak unto every feathered fowl, and to every beast of the field, Assemble yourselves, and come; gather yourselves on every side to my sacrifice that I do sacrifice for you, even a great sacrifice upon the mountains of Israel, that ye may eat flesh, and drink blood.” [Ezek. 39:17]
God’s sheep are scattered upon all the mountains Jer. 50:6; Ezek. 34:6 “My people hath been lost sheep: their shepherds have caused them to go astray, they have turned them away on the mountains: they have gone from mountain to hill, they have forgotten their restingplace.” [Jer. 50:6]

“My sheep wandered through all the mountains, and upon every high hill: yea, my flock was scattered upon all the face of the earth, and none did search or seek after them.” [Ezek. 34:6]

The saints who are scattered in thousands of sects and denominations holding to various interpretations will be restored to the truth, represented by the mountains of Israel.

“Therefore, O ye shepherds, hear the word of the Lord;
Thus saith the Lord God; Behold, I am against the shepherds; and I will require my flock at their hand, and cause them to cease from feeding the flock; neither shall the shepherds feed themselves any more; for I will deliver my flock from their mouth, that they may not be meat for them.
For thus saith the Lord God; Behold, I, even I, will both search my sheep, and seek them out.
As a shepherd seeketh out his flock in the day that he is among his sheep that are scattered; so will I seek out my sheep, and will deliver them out of all places where they have been scattered in the cloudy and dark day.
And I will bring them out from the people, and gather them from the countries, and will bring them to their own land, and feed them upon the mountains of Israel by the rivers, and in all the inhabited places of the country.
I will feed them in a good pasture, and upon the high mountains of Israel shall their fold be: there shall they lie in a good fold, and in a fat pasture shall they feed upon the mountains of Israel.” [Ezek. 34:7-14]

Mountains are scattered Hab. 3:6 God’s gifts, and blessings, represented by mountains, are distributed to men in every age, in all nations.

“He stood, and measured the earth: he beheld, and drove asunder the nations; and the everlasting mountains were scattered, the perpetual hills did bow: his ways are everlasting.” [Hab. 3:6]

“Thou hast ascended on high, thou hast led captivity captive: thou hast received gifts for men; yea, for the rebellious also, that the Lord God might dwell among them.” [Psa. 68:18]

“Wherefore he saith, When he ascended up on high, he led captivity captive, and gave gifts unto men.” [Eph. 4:8]

Paul said,

“God that made the world and all things therein, seeing that he is Lord of heaven and earth, dwelleth not in temples made with hands; Neither is worshipped with men’s hands, as though he needed any thing, seeing he giveth to all life, and breath, and all things; And hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth, and hath determined the times before appointed, and the bounds of their habitation; That they should seek the Lord, if haply they might feel after him, and find him, though he be not far from every one of us: For in him we live, and move, and have our being; as certain also of your own poets have said, For we are also his offspring.” [Acts 17:24-28]

A search in the mountains Jer. 16:16 “Behold, I will send for many fishers, saith the Lord, and they shall fish them; and after will I send for many hunters, and they shall hunt them from every mountain, and from every hill, and out of the holes of the rocks.” [Jer. 16:16]

“For thus saith the Lord God; Behold, I, even I, will both search my sheep, and seek them out.
As a shepherd seeketh out his flock in the day that he is among his sheep that are scattered; so will I seek out my sheep, and will deliver them out of all places where they have been scattered in the cloudy and dark day.
And I will bring them out from the people, and gather them from the countries, and will bring them to their own land, and feed them upon the mountains of Israel by the rivers, and in all the inhabited places of the country.” [Ezek. 34:11-13]

Mountains shake Isa. 54:10 God’s love for his saints outlasts mountains.

Though the mountains be shaken
and the hills be removed,
yet my unfailing love for you will not be shaken
nor my covenant of peace be removed,
says the Lord, who has compassion on you.
[Isa. 54:10 NIV]
Mountains sing Isa. 44:23; 55:12; Psa. 89:12 Prophecies about mountains are harmonious, when their symbolic significance is properly understood.
“Sing, O ye heavens; for the Lord hath done it: shout, ye lower parts of the earth: break forth into singing, ye mountains, O forest, and every tree therein: for the Lord hath redeemed Jacob, and glorified himself in Israel.” [Isa. 44:23]”For ye shall go out with joy, and be led forth with peace: the mountains and the hills shall break forth before you into singing, and all the trees of the field shall clap their hands.” [Isa. 55:12]

“You created the north and the south; Tabor and Hermon sing for joy at your name.” [Psa. 89:12]

Mountains skip like rams, hills like lambs Psa. 114:4 Mountains represent blessings that were promised to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; the same promises were possessed by Israel when they left Egypt and dwelt in the wilderness. The events of the Exodus were types of spiritual things. The Passover lamb was a type of Jesus, and the promise of a Saviour. The figure depicts promises to Israel being detached and separated from the earth and becoming spiritual.
Mountains smoke Ex. 19:18; Psa. 104:32; 144:5 “And mount Sinai was altogether on a smoke, because the Lord descended upon it in fire: and the smoke thereof ascended as the smoke of a furnace, and the whole mount quaked greatly.” [Ex. 19:18]

“He looketh on the earth, and it trembleth: he toucheth the hills, and they smoke.” [Psa. 104:32]

“Bow thy heavens, O Lord, and come down: touch the mountains, and they shall smoke.” [Psa. 144:5]

Mountains split and move apart Zech. 14:4 In Zechariah’s prophecy, the mount of Olives represents the Olivet discourse of Jesus. I suggest that the two halves of the mount of Olives moving apart represent two opposite interpretations of the Olivet discourse, preterism and dispensationalism. The valley between the two sections represents the whole of the present age of the church, to which the Olivet discourse applies.
A sword in the mountains Ezek. 6:3; Ezek. 38:21 God brings a sword upon the mountains and hills.
“And say, Ye mountains of Israel, hear the word of the Lord God; Thus saith the Lord God to the mountains, and to the hills, to the rivers, and to the valleys; Behold, I, even I, will bring a sword upon you, and I will destroy your high places.” [Ezek. 6:3]God calls for a sword against Gog and Magog.

“And I will call for a sword against him throughout all my mountains, saith the Lord God: every man’s sword shall be against his brother.” [Ezek. 38:21]

Mountains are threshed Isa. 41:14-16 Mountains threshed means that the words of Scripture are studied in minute detail, and the grains of truth are separated from the chaff.
“Fear not, thou worm Jacob, and ye men of Israel; I will help thee, saith the Lord, and thy redeemer, the Holy One of Israel.
Behold, I will make thee a new sharp threshing instrument having teeth: thou shalt thresh the mountains, and beat them small, and shalt make the hills as chaff.
Thou shalt fan them, and the wind shall carry them away, and the whirlwind shall scatter them: and thou shalt rejoice in the Lord, and shalt glory in the Holy One of Israel.” [Isa. 41:14-16]
Mountains thrown down Ezek. 38:20 Ezekiel wrote, “The fishes of the sea, and the fowls of the heaven, and the beasts of the field, and all creeping things that creep upon the earth, and all the men that are upon the face of the earth, shall shake at my presence, and the mountains shall be thrown down, and the steep places shall fall, and every wall shall fall to the ground.” [Ezek. 38:20]
Mountains represent prophecies and revelations. Ezekiel’s prophecy depicts great commotion about the proper interpretation of prophecy.
Mountains transcend time Luke 4:5-8 In the temptation of Jesus, a high mountain is associated with a visionary experience where centuries are compressed into a moment of time.

“And the devil, taking him up into an high mountain, shewed unto him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time.
And the devil said unto him, All this power will I give thee, and the glory of them: for that is delivered unto me; and to whomsoever I will I give it.
If thou therefore wilt worship me, all shall be thine.
And Jesus answered and said unto him, Get thee behind me, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve.” [Luke 4:5-8]
Jesus was transfigured on a mountain Mark 9:2-9 “And after six days Jesus taketh with him Peter, and James, and John, and leadeth them up into an high mountain apart by themselves: and he was transfigured before them.
And his raiment became shining, exceeding white as snow; so as no fuller on earth can white them.
And there appeared unto them Elias with Moses: and they were talking with Jesus.
And Peter answered and said to Jesus, Master, it is good for us to be here: and let us make three tabernacles; one for thee, and one for Moses, and one for Elias.
For he wist not what to say; for they were sore afraid.
And there was a cloud that overshadowed them: and a voice came out of the cloud, saying, This is my beloved Son: hear him.
And suddenly, when they had looked round about, they saw no man any more, save Jesus only with themselves.
And as they came down from the mountain, he charged them that they should tell no man what things they had seen, till the Son of man were risen from the dead.
And they kept that saying with themselves, questioning one with another what the rising from the dead should mean.” [Mark 9:2-9]
Mountains tremble before God Psa. 114; Jer. 4:24; Hab. 3:10 “Tremble, thou earth, at the presence of the Lord, at the presence of the God of Jacob; Which turned the rock into a standing water, the flint into a fountain of waters.” [Psa. 114:7-8]
“I beheld the mountains, and, lo, they trembled, and all the hills moved lightly.” [Jer. 4:24]
Mountains made waste Isa. 42:14-16 “I have long time holden my peace; I have been still, and refrained myself: now will I cry like a travailing woman; I will destroy and devour at once.
I will make waste mountains and hills, and dry up all their herbs; and I will make the rivers islands, and I will dry up the pools.
And I will bring the blind by a way that they knew not; I will lead them in paths that they have not known: I will make darkness light before them, and crooked things straight. These things will I do unto them, and not forsake them.” [Isa. 42:14-16]
Mountains are a way Isa. 49:11 The promises and blessings of the gospel are a way or route for believers to follow.

“And I will make all my mountains a way, and my highways shall be exalted.” [Isa. 49:11]

Jesus taught the way to God’s blessings in his Sermon on the Mount. [Matt. 5:1-11]
Mountains drop new wine Joel 3:18; Amos 9:13 “And it shall come to pass in that day, that the mountains shall drop down new wine, and the hills shall flow with milk, and all the rivers of Judah shall flow with waters, and a fountain shall come forth out of the house of the Lord, and shall water the valley of Shittim.” [Joel 3:18]
As wine ferments, the sugars of the original fruit become converted to alcohol. Similarly, a transformation process, namely interpretation, is required for understanding the meaning of most prophecy. Mountains represent the oracles of God, promises, and prophecies, and new wine flowing from mountains pictures new insights about the gospel discovered as prophecy is interpreted. By the style of his teaching and in his use of parables, Jesus followed the pattern of revelation established in the prophetic tradition. He identified his doctrine with wine. [Mark 2:22]”Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, that the plowman shall overtake the reaper, and the treader of grapes him that soweth seed; and the mountains shall drop sweet wine, and all the hills shall melt.” [Amos 9:13]
Wisdom existed before the mountains Prov. 8:25 “When there were no depths, I was brought forth; when there were no fountains abounding with water. Before the mountains were settled, before the hills was I brought forth: While as yet he had not made the earth, nor the fields, nor the highest part of the dust of the world.” [Prov. 8:24-26]

James said:
“Known unto God are all his works from the beginning of the world” [Acts 15:18]
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