The following post is a quick survey of the scriptures about vineyards, and winepresses.
Allan Beechick is a dispensationalist author, known for his book The Rapture Solution, in which he offered a unique but flawed interpretation of Luke 17:36-37.
Harmony of Olivet Discourse & Revelation, posted recently by LateNightWatch, features a table listing points of correspondence between the Olivet Discourse and Revelation. The following table is similar, and simplified, and includes several additional parallels and points of correspondence.
Animals mentioned in prophecy, such as horses, asses, and camels, are symbolic, and represent certain classes of people. This article reviews the context in which these animals are mentioned throughout the Bible.
The gospel says that after Jesus was raised up from the grave, he ascended to his Father’s throne, where he was made Lord and Christ, which means he fulfils the prophecies about a descendant of David who reigns on the throne of David forever. The apostle Peter said to the Jews on the day of Pentecost,
The prophetic time periods of 1,290 days, and 1,335 days, are mentioned in Dan. 12:11-12. The 1,260 days is found in Rev. 11:3 and 12:6. Each of these three periods is distinct, because each represents either the church age, or a portion of it. This is a diminishing period. The “time, times and a half” is symbolic, and the numbers associated with it are also symbolic. They are “models” having a character similar to other prophetic symbols. For example, the church is represented by a temple, or a candlestick; Christ is represented by the passover lamb, etc. Likewise, the duration of the church age is represented by three and a half symbolic years, that together with the ministry of Jesus, make a prophetic “week,” in which Christ confirms his covenant with his saints. [Dan. 9:27]
Rivers bring the water from places where the rain falls, or from high snowy mountains, to places that normally receive very little rain. The prophetic rivers are metaphors. Rain represents God’s word, and the prophetic rivers are streams of God’s revelations, themes of knowledge that extend throughout the Bible. Isaiah said,
For as the rain cometh down, and the snow from heaven, and returneth not thither, but watereth the earth, and maketh it bring forth and bud, that it may give seed to the sower, and bread to the eater: So shall my word be that goeth forth out of my mouth: it shall not return unto me void, but it shall accomplish that which I please, and it shall prosper in the thing whereto I sent it.
The rivers depict themes of the gospel, and they are parables, that illustrate how God’s promises work out through the ages.
The prophecy of Ezekiel chapter 34 distinguishes between the mountains of Israel, and the mountains of other lands.
Ezekiel 34:6 says, “My sheep wandered through all the mountains, and upon every high hill: yea, my flock was scattered upon all the face of the earth, and none did search or seek after them.”
God’s sheep are scattered upon the face of the earth, in tens of thousands of sects and denominations, and ministries, with many different beliefs.
John says in Rev. 12:6 the woman fled to the wilderness where she had a place prepared by God. But in many commentaries, it is not clear what is meant by the wilderness.
Many commentators mention that the prophecy alludes to the Exodus. The eagle’s wings given to the woman in Rev. 12:14 allude to the wings of eagles mentioned in Exod. 19:4: “Ye have seen what I did unto the Egyptians, and how I bare you on eagles’ wings, and brought you unto myself.” Eagles’ wings are also mentioned in Deut. 32:9-12.
In the table below two kinds of interpretation of Revelation 11 & 12 are compared. The column at the left identifies many of the symbols in these chapters. The middle column presents commonly held views based on a literal approach, and what is here considered the natural or human point of view, represented by the little horn in Daniel 7, with “eyes like the eyes of a man.” The column at the right contains a more mature, spiritual interpretation. Often, scholars will offer a mix of interpretations from either of the two columns.
Elements of the prophecy of the two witnesses of Revelation 11, possibly alluding to the account of Adam and Eve in the garden of Eden in Genesis 2 & 3 are identified in the table below.
William Milligan (1821-1892) was Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism in the University of Aberdeen. The following is his commentary on the prophecy of the two witnesses of Revelation 11. [William Milligan. The Book of Revelation. In: Marcus Dods, Robert Alexander Watson, Frederic William Farrar, eds. An Exposition of the Bible: a series of expositions covering all the books of the Old and New Testament, Volume 6. S. S. Scranton Co. Hartford, Conn. 1904. pp. 873-879]
The word of God in prophecy is like mountains, and the theories, and opinions, and interpretations of men are like clouds in comparison. The prophet Joel spoke of the day of the Lord as “A day of darkness and of gloominess, a day of clouds and of thick darkness.” [Joel 2:2] Clouds are associated with darkness of a spiritual kind.
Peter described the false teachers as “clouds that are carried with a tempest; to whom the mist of darkness is reserved for ever.” [2 Peter 2:17]
The sceptical Westminster Review for Oct. 1861 included a “secular exposition” of the Apocalypse, based on the work of various critics.
The author or authors of the essay took some pains to promote the notion that the Apocalypse was written before 70 A.D. Attempts at dating the writing of the Apocalypse before 70 A.D. are founded upon the idea that the cities mentioned in Rev. 11, the ‘holy city’ of vs. 2, and the ‘great city,’ called ‘Sodom and Egypt’ in vs. 8, are the same. This they insisted upon, while defending the opposite view of the temple of God mentioned in vs. 1 and vs. 19. These temples of God, they claimed, are different; the temple of God in Rev. 11:1 is located in the earthly Jerusalem, that (in their opinion) was not yet destroyed; John had to descend from heaven to measure it; but the one in vs. 19 is the temple in heaven.
The prophecy in Revelation 11:1-14 refers to two cities, one being the holy city, which is Jerusalem, and another one which is not named specifically, but is referred to in a cryptic way.
These two cities are contrasted, as the labels “holy city” (verse 2) and “Sodom and Egypt” (verse 8) are as opposite as can be imagined. But, many expositors have tried to equate these two cities and find only one city in the chapter, which they identify with the earthly Jerusalem!
In Revelation 11 & 12, there is a contrast between things of the earth, and things in heaven. In Revelation 11:2, the holy city is trampled by Gentiles for 42 months. This is not the earthly Jerusalem; rather, it is the one which Jesus called the city of the great King, [Matt. 5:35] which is established in the top of the mountains, and raised up above the hills. [Isa. 2:2] The heavenly city is the focus of prophecy, after the resurrection of Jesus; the earthly one was identified with Hagar the Egyptian bondwoman, who was cast out. [Gal. 4:25]
Christopher Wordsworth, (1807-1885) was a nephew of poet William Wordsworth, and the author of several theological works, including a Bible commentary, and 50 hymns. He was headmaster of Harrow Boys School (1836-1850), and Vicar at Stanford-in-the-Vale, Berkshire (1850-1869), and Archdeacon of Westminster, and became Bishop of Lincoln in 1868.
In the following, Christopher Wordsworth discusses the second woe of Revelation 9 & 11, from: Lectures on the Apocalypse, Critical, Expository, Practical, delivered before the University of Cambridge by Christopher Wordsworth, Canon of Westminster. 3rd. ed. London, 1852. pp. 142-158.
6. The next, the Sixth, Trumpet has occasioned some perplexity.